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You obviously already have a copy of this FAQ but if you don't
have the most up to date version you can get it from:

It is also posted on or about the 15th of each month to:

This version was most recently updated on August 15, 1996.

The following list of Frequently Asked Questions has been put
together with the help many people and their input is greatly
appreciated. All contributors are acknowledged at the end of
this FAQ and sections which are substantially the work of one
person are denoted with that persons initials.

This FAQ is a work in progress and further submissions in the
way of questions and/or answers are encouraged. You can e-mail
me, Mitchell McCann, at

Please note that there is also a r.a.s.* FAQ by Andrew Henry
which contains a lot of information that is of interest to F1
fans. Unfortunately, that FAQ is no longer being updated so some
of the information may be dated but it is still well worth

     1.1 1996 F1 schedule
     1.2 What is Formula One? What is the FIA? What is FOCA?
     1.3 Ticket information

     2.1  Arrows
     2.2  Benetton
     2.3  Ferrari
     2.4  Forti
     2.5  Jordan
     2.6  Ligier
     2.7  McLaren
     2.8  Minardi
     2.9  Sauber
     2.10 Tyrrell
     2.11 Williams

     3.1  Jean Alesi
     3.2  Luca Badoer
     3.3  Rubens Barrichello
     3.4  Gerhard Berger
     3.5  Martin Brundle
     3.6  David Coultard
     3.7  Pedro Diniz
     3.8  Juan Manuel Fangio
     3.9  Giancarlo Fisichella
     3.10 Heinz-Harald Frentzen
     3.11 Mika Hakkinen
     3.12 Johnny Herbert
     3.13 Damon Hill
     3.14 Eddie Irvine
     3.15 Ukyo Katayama
     3.16 Pedro Lamy
     3.17 Jan Magnussen
     3.18 Tarso Marques
     3.19 Andrea Montermini
     3.20 Olivier Panis
     3.21 Mika Salo
     3.22 Michael Schumacher
     3.23 Ayrton Senna
     3.24 Jos Verstappen
     3.25 Jacques Villeneuve

     4.1  How many points are scored for a win?
     4.2  Is that a brake light on the back of the cars?
     4.3  The start.
     4.4  The finish.
     4.5  What is the safety car for?
     4.6  What is a stop-go penalty?
     4.7  What do the different colored flags mean?
     4.8  Is mid-race re-fueling allowed?
     4.9  What is the 107% rule?
     4.10 Who is eligible for a super-license?

     5.1  Why V10 engines?
     5.2  How big are the engines?
     5.3  How much does a car weigh?
     5.4  What is the tub made of?
     5.5  How many gears do the cars have?
     5.6  Interesting engine facts.

     6.1  What happens during a pit-stop?
     6.2  Sponsorship.
     6.3  What's the difference between F1 and Indy?
     6.4  How many teams are there?
     6.5  What is the connection between Ford and Cosworth?
     6.6  What radio frequencies do the teams use?
     6.7  How can you tell team-mates apart?
     6.8  Why is Frank Williams in a wheelchair?
     6.9  What is happening to UK TV coverage in 1997? 






1.1 1996 schedule

     March 10th     Melbourne         Australia       Hill
     March 31st     Interlagos        Brazil          Hill
     April 7th      Buenos Aires      Argentina       Hill
     April 28th     Nurenburgring     Europe          Villeneuve
     May 5th        Imola             San Marino      Hill
     May 19th       Monte Carlo       Monaco          Panis
     June 2nd       Barcelona         Spain           Schumacher
     June 16th      Montreal          Canada          Hill 
     June 30th      Magny-Cours       France          Hill
     July 14th      Silverstone       Great Britain   Villeneuve
     July 28th      Hockenheim        Germany         Hill
     August 11th    Budapest          Hungary         Villeneuve
     August 25th    Spa-Francorchamps Belgium         Schumacher
     September 8th  Monza             Italy           Schumacher
     September 22nd Estoril           Portugal        Villeneuve
     October 13th   Suzuka            Japan

1.2 What is Formula One? What is the FIA? What is FOCA?   [AH]

FIA politics is really grungy stuff.
The Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) is the
governing and sanctioning body for the FIA World Driver's
Championship, which is run to a set of technical and procedural
regulations and specifications known as Formula One. The FIA's
competition committee, which consists of representatives of the
motor sport organizing bodies of the member countries (eg ACCUS
represents the US, the RAC represents the UK, the FFSA
represents France), sets the F1 regulations, interprets them,
and judges any appeals or disputes.

The Formula One Constructor's Association (FOCA) is an
organisation of the chassis builders (constructors) who design
and build the cars that race in the F1 Grands Prix. Since the
rules these days say that a constructor can supply cars to only
one team, constructor and team are more or less synonymous.

Max Mosley (son of British fascist leader Oswald Mosley) is the
president of the FIA and is in charge of its day-to-day
operations. Bernie Ecclestone, who used to own and manage the
Brabham F1 team, is the president of the FOCA and also the
vice-president of marketing for the FIA. Originally, all the F1
Grands Prix were independent events, independently financed and
organized within their host countries. The FIA merely set the
technical regulations for F1, and designated certain Grands Prix
to be the qualifying rounds for the Driver's and Constructor's
Championships. Up until sometime in the 1970s, there were other
Grands Prix held besides those races included in the FIA
Championship. But the idea of non-Championship Grands Prix died
out as it became more and more expensive to hold F1 events. As
time went by, the Constructor's Association (FOCA) took on a
bigger and bigger role in the business side of Grand Prix
racing. They organized and coordinated the sponsorship of the
events, sold the television rights, and did the logistics and
financing of moving the Grand Prix `circus' from country to

Then, in the late 1970s, Jean-Marie Balestre was elected as head
of the Committee du Sport Internationale (CSI), the committee of
the FIA directly involved in supervising F1. He decided that the
FIA should take back more control over the sport. When he tried
to impose his will autocratically, Bernie Ecclestone and the
other constructors in FOCA resisted. There was a big power
struggle between FISA (Federation Internationale du Sport
Automotive, Balestre's new name for the CSI) and FOCA in the
early 1980s. Some Grands Prix got cancelled or had their
championship status stripped as a result. In the end, FISA and
the FIA won out over the FOCA, mainly, I think, because the
teams were not unanimously behind the FOCA (not all constructors
were FOCA members), and because the sponsors, race organizers,
and others involved in Grand Prix racing prevailed on both sides
to settle things amicably. But for a while, the FOCA was talking
about forming a new F1 championship series comprising the races
that it organized, while the FIA of course was threatening to
refuse sanctioning for those races. There almost were two `World
Championship' series. Later on, Bernie Ecclestone was appointed
marketing director for the FIA, but he still retains his
presidency of FOCA. So Bernie is still in charge of the
organizational and financial side of Grand Prix racing, but now
officially as part of the FIA instead of in an independent

The agreement between FISA and FOCA over control of F1 is called
the Concorde Agreement. Among other things, it says that except
in the case of emergencies, changes to technical regulations
must be announced two years in advance of the date of adoption,
unless all constructors agree unanimously to adopt the
regulations earlier. This came up in 1994 because Max Mosley
wanted to introduce several major technical changes in the wake
of a series of fatal and near-fatal accidents in F1. He made
these changes without the unanimous agreement called for by the
Concorde Agreement, by claiming that this was an emergency

So Max Mosley, as FIA president, is responsible for setting
rules and policy for F1, but he's limited by the Concorde
Agreement in how quickly and how far he can push things his way.
Since Bernie Ecclestone still controls the purse strings for
Grand Prix racing, he still carries a lot of clout. As for `can
somebody take it away', the FIA president is elected by the
representatives from the member countries. When Max Mosley's
current term is up, he could be voted out. Similarly, I think
that the constructors could oust Ecclestone if they wanted to.

1.3  Ticket information

(Editor's note: I would like to expand on this section and
possibly make it a separate posting. Anybody who has this sort
of information on any regular and/or future venues, please let
me know).

     Canada -  Grand Prix Molson du Canada   
               Phone: (514) 392-4731
               Fax:   (514) 392-0007
               1996 prices -  Gold 3 day     Can$295
                              Silver 3 day   Can$250
                              Bronze 3 day   Can$135
                              Bronze daily   Can$50, 60 and 85
                              G.A. 3 day     Can$60
                              G.A. daily     Can$20, 30 and 40

Consensus seems to be that the stands at the hairpin, silver or
bronze, are the best value for money. Golds are over-priced.
General Admission - can be OK but get there very early. Circuit
accessible by public transport - subway to Ile St-Helene

Belgian Grand Prix
Spa Francorchamps
(usually held at last weekend of August)

Route du Circuit 55
B-4970 Francorchamps
Tel +32 87-27.51.46 / 27.51.38 
Fax +32 87-27.55.51 / 27.52.96

1994 Prices
Tickets:      Friday  Saturday    Sunday   Weekend
Green   BEF      700     1.500     2.500     4.000
Bronze  BEF    1.000     2.000     3.500     5.000
Silver  BEF    1.500     3.000     6.000     7.000
Gold    BEF     ----      ----     8.000     9.000

Green is limited access only, which means you allowed to stand
on the banking along the 'Kemmel' straight. Bronze gives you
access to (practically) all around the circuit. There are some
pretty fast corners at Spa, which are a must to be seen {Usually
a spin or two occurs at well :-)}. A Silver ticket buys you a
place at the open tribunes, while Gold either gives you right to
sit at the covered tribune at the finish line or the tribune
facing the awesome 'Eau Rouge' corner.

Looking for a place to stay? The Tourist Office might help you
Spa Office du Tourisme
Place Royal 41
B 4900 Spa
Tel (+32) 87 77.17.00
Fax (+32) 87 77.07.00

Monaco Grand Prix
Always held at the weekend following Ascension day.

The following information about the event in 1996 was found on
the Webpages at

                                      Thursday  Saturday  Sunday
Stand          Situation              16-May    18-May    19-May
A1             Saint Devote - Tabac   250F      600F      1400F
A3             Viaduc Saint Devote    250F      600F      1400F
A4             Ave de la Costa        -         300F       500F
B              Casino                 250F      700F      1400F
E              Chicane                -         600F      1400F
K              Quai Albert 1er        300F      750F      1500F
M              Route de la Piscine    300F      700F      1400F
N              Piscine panne Nord     200F      450F       900F
O              Piscine Plongeur       200F      600F      1400F
P              Piscine panne Sud      200F      450F       900F
L              Piscine Rainier III    200F      450F       900F
T              Cale de halage         150F      300F       -   
U              Virage Rascasse        250F      -          -   
V              Virage Anthony Noghes  250F      600F      1400F
W              Courbe des Gazometres  250F      600F      1400F
Z1             Av J.F. Kennedy        100F      200F       300F
Z2             Virage Anthony Noghes  150F      300F       600F 

R              Rocher de Monaco       -         150F       200F

Seating Notes
Stands K,M have the best view of the large TV screen (positioned
above and behind stand Z1.) Stand R is a large grass bank with a
view down over the port. There are no official seats. The large
TV can also be seen from this stand. 

The tickets do not reference a seat number. You are free to sit
anywhere in the stand you have chosen. 
Stands K,M: The ticket allows access to K and M. 
Stands N,O,P: The ticket allows access to N,O and P. 

The stands are free. The circuit is only operational in the
morning and there is no Formula 1 action. 

The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to

The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to

Buying Tickets

The Monaco Grand Prix tickets are on sale at the Automobile Club
of Monaco Reservations Office *) or at the accredited agents: 

     Voyages Kuoni 
     2 rue Marechal Joffre 
     06000 Nice 
     Tel:, FAX: 

Great Britain: 
     Page and Moy 
     136 London Road 
     Leicester LE2 1EN 
     Tel: (116) 252.4344, FAX: (116) 252.4283 

     Bononia Viaggi 
     Galleria del Toro 3 
     40121 Bologna 
     Tel: (51) 26.39.85, FAX: (51) 23.93.17 

     A.C. der Schweiz 
     Birsigstrasse 4 
     4011 Basel 
     Tel: (61) 272.39.33, FAX: (61) 281.36.57 

*) Automobile Club de Monaco 
     23, Bd. Albert 1er 
     MC98012 Monaco 


2.1  Arrows
     Engine:             Hart V8
     Nationality:        British
     Key personnel:      Tom Walkinshaw - owner
     Year formed:        1977
     Formula 1 debut:    1978
     1995 car/drivers:   FA16 - Inoue, Papis, Morbidelli
     1996 car/drivers:   FA17 - Rosset, Verstappen
     Address:            Arrows Grand Prix International
                         39 Barton Road
                         Water Eaton Industrial Estate
                         Bletchley, Milton Keynes
                         Buckinghamshire MK2 3HW

Founded in 1977 by Jackie Oliver and Alan Rees, Arrows is
currently the oldest F1 team never to have a won a GP. Their
most successful season was 1988 when Eddie Cheever and Derek
Warwick took them to 5th place in the constructor's

In 1989 the team was bought by the Japanese courier company
Footwork. In 94 following Footwork's financial problems, Oliver
and Rees regained control of the team although the Footwork name
lingered on (as far as the car designation is concerned) due to
FOCA rules which meant that the team would have lost their
travel money from FOCA if they had switched names - this rule
could have been waived with the consent of all the teams but Ron
Dennis and at least one other refused to sign off on the waiver.
In 1996, having been unable to gain full control of Ligier, Tom
Walkinshaw bought the Arrows team bringing in many of his TWR
people from Ligier. Of course, since then Ligier has won a GP
and Arrows hasn't - which is kind of ironic. The name of the
TEAM has been changed to TWR Arrows but the car is still
designated as a Footwork.

2.2  Benetton
     Engine:             Renault RS8
     Nationality:        Italian (nominally British until '96)
     Key personnel:      Flavio Briatore - Managing Director
                         Ross Brawn - Technical Director
     Year formed:        1970 - Toleman
     Formula 1 debut:    1981
     1995 car/drivers:   B195 - Herbert, Schumacher
     1996 car/drivers:   B196 - Alesi, Berger
     Address:            Benetton Formula Ltd.
                         Whiteways Technical Centre
                         Enstone, Chipping Norton
                         Oxfordshire OX8 6XZ

The Mild Seven Benetton Renault B196

Front       Double wishbone and pushrod with Benetton designed
suspension: and manufactured suspension system located on top of
            the monocoque.

Rear        Double wishbone and pushrod with upper mounted 
suspension: Benetton designed and manufactured damper units.

Transmiss:  Benetton semi-automatic 7 speed gearbox. Triple
            plate clutch.
Fuel system:ATL rubber fuel cell mounted within monocoque
            structure behind cockpit.
Oil system: Oil tank within bell-housing providing two gallon/
            nine liter capacity.
Cooling     Separate water and oil cooling; water radiators in 
system:     each sidepod.
Electrical: Hardware and software developed jointly by Benetton
            and Magnetti Marelli.
Brakes:     Carbon fibre discs and pads.

Engine:      Renault RS8
Cylinders:   V10 at 67 degree angle
Dimensions:  623 x 540.6 x 420.2 
Weight:      Approximately 132 kg according to accessories
Valves:      Four per cylinder

Benetton entered Formula 1 as a sponsor of the Tyrrell team in
1983 and then Alfa Romeo in '84 and '85. On January 1st 1986
they made the leap from sponsorship to ownership, buying the
Toleman team and moving into their premises in Witney in
In their first season they achieved two poles, one victory
(Berger at the Mexican GP) and 6th place in the constructor's
championship and they have improved steadily ever since. From
'87 - '90 they finished 5th, 3rd, 4th and 3rd in the
championship. In '91 Schumacher made his F1 debut and was signed
to a full time ride in '92 partnered by Martin Brundle.
Schumacher and Benetton finished their respective championships
in 3rd. They could not improve on their performance in '93 but
by '94 Schumacher had become a force to be reckoned with and he
took the driver's championship in controversial fashion at the
end of a controversial season. In 95 Benetton completed the
sweep of driver's and constructor's championships with relative

2.3  Ferrari
     Engine:             Ferrari
     Nationality:        Italian
     Key personnel:      Luca Cordero di Montezemolo - Chairman
                         Jean Todt - Sport Director
                         John Barnard - Technical director
     Year formed:        1929
     Formula 1 debut:    1950
     1995 car/drivers:   412T2 - Alesi, Berger
     1996 car/drivers:   F310  - Schumacher, Irvine
     Address:            Ferrari SpA
                         Casella Postale 589
                         Via Emilia 1163
                         I-41100 Maranello (Modena)
     Sponsors:           Marlboro, Shell, Asprey, Magnetti 
                         Marelli, Telecom Italia, Goodyear,
                         Pioneer, Arexons, BBS, Brembo, SKF, 
                         Cerruti, Momo, NGK, TRW Sabelt, USAG,
                         Ve. Ca. Impianti

The Ferrari F310

Suspension:Independent, push-rod activated torsion spring front 
           and rear.
Transmiss: Ferrari transverse gearbox.Limited slip differential.
           Semi-automatic sequential electronically controlled
           gearbox. Six gears plus reverse.

Engine:           3000 Ferrari (046)
Cylinders:        V10 at 75 degree angle
Number of valves: 40
Displacement:     2,998.1 cc
Max. power:       > 600 HP
Electrical:       Magnetti Marelli

Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, Ferrari is the oldest team in
F1 and the only one to have raced since the beginning of F1 in
1950. Scuderia Ferrari was initially formed as an
engineering-racing division of Alfa Romeo for whom Ferrari had
worked since 1920. Ferrari abandoned the Alfa connection in 1940
and after the war began designing and building the very first
Ferrari. In 1969 Fiat bought a 50% stake in the company and
became majority shareholder in 1988. 

From 1950 - 1995, 86 drivers have driven for Ferrari, 31 winning
at least 1 GP, for a total of 105 victories, 114 pole positions,
9 driver's titles and 8 constructor's titles (since '58) - all

Driver's titles went to: Ascari (52, 53), Fangio (56), Hawthorn
(58), P.Hill(61), Surtees (64), Lauda (75, 77) and Schekter
(79). Winningest drivers are: Lauda 15, Ascari 13, Ickx 6, 
Villeneuve 6, Berger 5, Prost 5, Reutemann 5. 

Ferrari won the constructor's championship in: 61, 64, 75, 76,
77, 79, 82 and 83.  

Official Ferrari Home Page (Italian)

Official Ferrari Home Page (English)

2.4  Forti
     Engine:             Ford Zetec V8.
     Nationality:        Italian
     Key personnel:      Guido Forti - owner
                         Giorgio Stirano - Chief Designer
     Year formed:                            
     Formula 1 debut:    1995
     1995 car/drivers:   FG01 - Diniz, Moreno
     1996 car/drivers:   FG03 - Badoer, Montermini
     Address:            Forti Corse S.R.L.
                         Via Luigi Einaudi
                         1500 Alessandria

Unofficial Forti Home Page

2.5  Jordan
     Engine:             Peugeot
     Nationality:        Irish
     Key personnel:      Owner - Eddie Jordan
                         Chief Designer - Gary Anderson
     Year formed:        1980
     Formula 1 debut:    1991
     1995 car/drivers:   195 - Barrichello, Irvine
     1996 car/drivers:   196 - Barrichello, Brundle
     Address:            Jordan Grand Prix
                         Silverstone Circuit
                         Northamptonshire NN12 8TN

     Sponsors:           Total, Ape, Beta, Cadtek, Carrs Paints,
                         Control Techniques, Diavia, Guam, 
                         Hewlett-Packard, Kremlyovskaya, Osama,
                         Motorscan, Pepsi, Ruffles, Sally 
                         Ferries, Scania, Uliveto, Unipart, 
                         Benson and Hedges

The Jordan Peugeot 196

Front       Composite pushrods activating twin Jordan GP 
suspension: dampers, unequal length aerodynamic wishbones,
            composite top wishbone, steel lower wishbone,
            steel fabricated uprights and front anti-roll bar.

Rear        Composite pushrods activating twin gearbox mounted 
suspension: Jordan GP dampers, unequal length aerodynamic      
            wishbones, composite top wishbone, steel lower     
            wishbone, steel fabricated uprights and rear anti- 
            roll bar.

Transmiss:  In house Jordan GP design. 7 speed + reverse 
            longitudinal gearbox with electronically operated
            hydraulic sequential gearchange.
Clutch:     Triple plate Jordan Peugeot racing clutch.
Brakes:     Brembo braking system. 8 piston metal matrix 
            callipers on front and rear. SEP carbon discs and 
Wheels:     Forged OZ Racing to Jordan GP specification.
Fuel tank:  145 litres
Wheelbase:  2950mm
Front track:1700mm
Rear track: 1618mm
Overall height:  950mm
Overall length: 4450mm
Overall weight: 600 kg including driver

Engine:                        Peugeot A12EV5 
Cylinders:                     V10 at 72 degree angle
Capacity:                      2998cc
Timing:                        By gear group
Valves:                        4 per cylinder, with pneumatic   
Cylinder blocks and heads:     Light alloy
Camshafts:                     2 per bank of cylinders
Fuel supply and ignition:      TAG electronic control
Dimensions:                    620 x 538 x 408
Weight:                        133kg

Eddie Jordan raced in karts, FF1600, Formula Atlantic, F3 and F2
and was a test driver for McLaren before establishing Eddie
Jordan Racing in 1980 initially to support his own racing
career. He retired from driving in 1981 to concentrate on
running the team. He signed David Sears to drive a Ralt-Toyota
in the 1981 British F3 series. The team started its first event
from the front row and ended up on the rostrum after finishing

Between 1981 and 1989  the team ran several F3 cars in Britain,
Europe, France and in 1985 they also began competing in the
newly created F3000. During these years many drivers took a seat
in Jordan cars including Martin Brundle, Stefan Johansson, David
Hunt, Johnny Herbert, Jean Alesi and a first F3 test for Ayrton
Senna in August '82. The Jordan team was a consistent race
winner and narrowly missed out on the Championships before
securing the F3 title in 1987 with Herbert winning 5 races. They
won the F3000 championship in 1989 with Alesi beating out

As the move towards F1 gathered pace, Jordan concentrated his
efforts solely on F3000 in 1990, running three Mugen powered
Reynards for Eddie Irvine, Heinz Harald Frentzen and Emanuele
Naspetti. Irvine was the dominant of the three gaining 3rd place
in the championship with a race win at Hockenheim. Jordan was
still active in F3000 in 1991 with the two-car Team Barclay EJR
though an uncompetitive chassis prevented Damon Hill and
Vincenzo Sospiri from achieving better results than a 2nd at
Hockenheim (Sospiri) a third place at Nogard (Hill).

The fledgling F1 team however were to prove the success story of
the motorsport year. Jordan Grand Prix took the F1 establishment
by surprise in 1991 finishing an unprecedented 5th in the
Constructor's championship in their first season.

1992 was to be a frustrating year and the team only scored one
championship point at the final race in Adelaide. It was
announced at the Australian GP that Jordan had signed an
exclusive agreement with Brian Hart for the supply of his new
V10 engine for the 93 and 94 seasons. A few weeks later Rubens
Barrichello was signed to the team. The team did not score
points in 93 until the penultimate round in Japan with
Barrichello finishing 5th followed by F1 newcomer Eddie Irvine
making his GP debut.

The team was much improved in 94 retaining both drivers and
engine partner. Despite Irvine's three race ban for his
involvement in the incident at the Brazilian GP, the team
finished the year with 28 points, 5th place in the constructors,
a rostrum finish and a pole position - both courtesy of

In October 94 Jordan announced that they had signed a three year
exclusive engine deal with Peugeot. The team maintained the same
driver line-up  but the team did not live up to their promise
scoring just two rostrum finishes - 2nd and 3rd at the Canadian
GP. The same driver line-up was again announced for '96 but just
one week later Eddie Irvine was lured away by Ferrari - Jordan
receiving several million in compensation from the Italian team.
Martin Brundle has returned to the Jordan team taking Irvine's

Jordan Home Page

2.6  Ligier
     Engine:             Honda
     Nationality:        French
     Key personnel:      Technical Director - Andre de Cortanze
     Year formed:
     Formula 1 debut:
     1995 car/drivers:   JS41 - Brundle, Panis, Suzuki
     1996 car/drivers:   JS43 - Diniz, Panis
     Address:            Ligier Sports
                         Technopole de la Nievre
                         58470 Magny Cours

2.7  McLaren 
     Engine:             Mercedes
     Nationality:        British 
     Key personnel:      Managing Director - Ron Dennis
                         Chief Designer - Neil Oatley
     Year formed:        1963 - Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Ltd.
     Formula 1 debut:    1966 - Monaco
     1995 car/drivers:   MP4/10 - Blundell, Hakkinen, Mansell,
     1996 car/drivers:   MP4/11 - Coulthard, Hakkinen
     Address:            McLaren International Ltd.
                         Woking Business Park
                         Albert Drive
                         Woking, Surrey GU 21 5JY
     Sponsors:           Marlboro, Hugo Boss, Tag-Heuer,        
                         Essilor, Abac, Asics, Charmilles       
                         Technologies, GS Battery, Enkei,Sports 
                         Marketing Surveys, Highland Spring,    
                         Targetti, Mobil, Loctite, Goodyear,    
                         Kenwood, Instron, Computervision, Sun  

The Marlboro McLaren Mercedes MP4/11

Front       Inboard spring/damper operated by pushrod bellcrank 
suspension: unequal length wishbones

Rear        Inboard spring/damper operated by pushrod bellcrank 
suspension: unequal length wishbones

Transmiss:  McLaren longitudinal six speed gearbox with semi-
            automatic operation. Control by TAG Electronic 
            Systems. McLaren drive shafts and CV assemblies.
Dampers:    Penske
Brakes:     AP Racing calipers and master cylinders
Wheels:     Enkei

Engine:                      Mercedes-Benz FO110 - Phase 3
Cubic capacity:              3000cc
Component drive:             Geartrain
Cylinders:                   V10 at 75 degree angle
Cylinder block:              Sand cast aluminum alloy, wet
Cylinder heads:              One piece sand cast aluminum alloy
Crankshaft:                  Forged steel
Camshaft:                    Two per bank of cylinders, 4 valves
                             per cylinder
Injection and ignition:      TAG Electronic Systems
Dimensions:                  590mm x 500mm x 522mm
Spark plugs:                 NGK

Bruce McLaren founded the team that bears his name in 1963. 
Their F1 debut came in 1966 and their first GP win was in 1968
in Belgium with Bruce himself at the wheel. Bruce McLaren died
in 1970 while testing a Can-Am sportscar at Goodwood. Having
signed up with Marlboro in '74, a partnership that persists to
this day, McLaren won driver (Fittipaldi) and constructor's
championships and then the driver's championship again in '76

In 1980, at the urging of mutual sponsor Marlboro, the team
merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four to form McLaren
International (The MP4 in the car designation stands for
Marlboro Project Four). In '84, switching from Ford to Porsche
TAG, McLaren again won both driver's and constructor's
championships with Lauda beating Prost to the driver's title by
half a point. This marked the beginning of McLaren's domination
of F1 which was to last through the 91 season. Switching to
Honda in 1988, they won constructor's championships in 84, 85,
88, 89, 90 and 91. They were equally successful in the driver's
championship winning in 85 and 86 (Prost), 88 (Senna), 89
(Prost), 90 and 91 (Senna). Due to this long period of almost
complete dominance, McLaren is second only to Ferrari with 104
GP wins, 7 constructor's titles and 9 driver's titles.

Despite switching engines in 93 (Ford), 94 (Peugeot) and 95
(Mercedes), McLaren has not been able to re-create this success
and has not won a GP since 1993. They finished 95 in fourth
place but Jordan, Sauber and Ligier are all threatening
McLaren's place as one of the Big Four.

McLaren Home Page

2.8  Minardi
     Engine:             Ford
     Nationality:        Italian
     Key personnel:      Owners - Gian Carlo Minardi
                                - Giuseppe Lucchini
                         Technical director - Mauro Gennari
     Year formed:        1974
     Formula 1 debut:    1985
     1995 car/drivers:   M195 - Badoer, Lamy, Martini
     1996 car/drivers:   M195B- Fisichella, Lamy, Lavaggi,      

     Address:            Minardi Scuderia Italia
                         Via Spallanzani 21 
                         Faenza (RA)

The Minardi Ford 195B

Suspension: Inboard spring via rocker and pushrod to bottom
            wishbone (front and rear)
Dampers:    Penske
Brakes:     Brembo
Brake discs:Carbone Industrie
Gearbox:    Xtrac gearbox and Minardi electrohydraulic system.
            6 speeds plus reverse.
Wheels:     Fondmetal
Length:     4350mm
Width:      1980mm
Height:      995mm
Wheelbase:  2853.5mm
Engine:     Ford ED2 V8
Injection:  Magnetti Marelli

Based on the experience accumulated in motor racing with the
'Scuderia del Passatore' in 1972 and "Scuderia Everest' in 1974
Gian Carlo Minardi felt capable of constructing his own cars and
in 1979 he founded the Minardi team in association with Piero
Mancini and Giacomo Caliri. The first Minardi F2 cars, equipped
with BMW engines, got good results such as Alboreto's win at
Misano. In 1985 Minardi entered F1 with a car driven by
Pierluigi Martini and powered by a Motori Moderni turbo engine.
In 1986 a big jump was foreseen and the signing of qualified
drivers such as Andrea de Cesaris and Alessandro Nannini
testified to that. Unfortunately the sophisticated technology of
the turbo engines and reliability problems didn't allow the
achievement of significant results. In 1988 Minardi switched to
Ford Cosworth engines and signed Spanish drivers Luis Sala and
Adrian Campos. After the Canadian GP, Campos retired and was
replaced by Martini who scored Minardi's first championship
point with 6th place in Detroit.

In 1989 Martini and Sala scored top six finishes and Martini
started third on the grid twice. In 1990 Sala was replaced by
Paolo Barilla. The high point of the season, during which
Minardi did not score any points, was Martini's front row start
at the U.S. GP. In 1991 Minardi adopted the V12 Ferrari engine
and after struggling with it at the beginning of the season
finished 7th in the constructor's championship. In 92 they
switched drivers and engines going with the Lamborghini V12 and
Gianni Morbidelli and Christian Fittipaldi but scored only one
point. 93 was a slightly better year with Fittipaldi and
Fabrizio Barbazza both scoring points to give Minardi 8th place
in the constructor's championship.

In 1994 Minardi merged with the Scuderia Italia to form the
current team - Minardi Scuderia Italia. Powered by a Ford HB
engine and driven by Martini and Michele Alboreto the team
scored 5 points finishing 10th. 1995 represented another step
backwards with the driver combination of Martini, Badoer and
Lamy scoring just one point.  

Minardi Home Page

2.9  Sauber
     Engine:             Ford Zetec-R V10
     Nationality:        Swiss     
     Key personnel:      Owner - Peter Sauber
                         Chief Designer - Leo Ress
     Year formed:        1968
     Formula 1 debut:    1993
     1995 car/drivers:   C14 - Boullion, Frentzen, Wendlinger
     1996 car/drivers:   C15 - Frentzen, Herbert
     Address:            Wildbachstrasse 9
                         CH-8340 Hinwil

     Sponsors: Red Bull, Baumler, Brembo, Goodyear, Hertz, IBM,
               MacNeal-Schwendler, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Modellbau
               Bubeck, OMP, Sachs, Silicon Graphics, Speedline

The Red Bull Sauber-Ford C15

Suspension: Upper and lower wishbones, combined spring/damper 
            units (Sachs) mounted inboard with pushrod
            actuation, front and rear.
Brakes:     Eight-piston calipers front and rear (Brembo) carbon
            pads and discs (Carbone Industries)
Transmiss:  Semi-automatic, longitudinally mounted, six-speed
            transmission (Sauber), carbon clutch (Sachs)
Length:     4340mm
Width:      2000mm
Height:     1000mm
Front track:1710mm
Rear track: 1610mm
Wheel base: 2900mm

Engine:              Ford Zetec-R V10
Number of cylinders: 10 in 72 degree V
Number of valves:    40
Displacement:        2998 cc
Engine Management:   Ford Electronics
Oil system:          Dry sump
Ignition system:     Cosworth
Throttles:           Light-weight barrel valves
Spark plugs:         Champion
Weight:              120 kg
Dimensions:          605mm x 520mm x 460mm

1968 Founding of PP Sauber AG
1977 First start for a Sauber (C5) at the 24 Hours if Le Mans.
1984 Sauber and Mercedes-Benz commence motorsport co-operation.
1986 Sauber cars start five rounds of the Sports Car World
     Championship; Sauber C8 wins Nurburgring 1000km race.
1988 Sauber cars win 5 out of 10 WSC races and the team finishes
     second in the Team's World Championship.
1989 Sauber C9 "Silver Arrows" secure WSC Championship and
     Teams' World Championship after taking 7 victories in eight
     races (three double wins); Sauber C9s finish 1st, 2nd and
     5th at Le Mans.
1990 Sauber C11 secures WSC Drivers' and Teams' titles for the
     2nd consecutive year.
1992 February 4; Sauber announces commencement of F1 project.
1993 Sauber finishes in 7th place in the F1 Constructors' 
1994 Sauber finishes in 8th place in the F1 Constructors' 
1995 Sauber finishes in 7th place in the F1 Constructors' 

2.10 Tyrrell
     Engine:             Yamaha Judd
     Nationality:        British
     Key personnel:      Chairman - Ken Tyrrell
                         MD (Commercial) - Bob Tyrrell
                         MD (Engineering) - Harvey Postlethwaite
     Year formed:        1968
     Formula 1 debut:    1968
     1995 car/drivers:   023 - Katayama, Salo, Tarquini
     1996 car/drivers:   024 - Katayama, Salo
     Address:            Long Reach
                         Woking, Surrey GU23 6PE

The Tyrrell Yamaha 024

Front and rear  Combined spring and damper units operated by
suspension:     push-rods and rockers, third spring,
                mechanical anti-roll bar
Dampers:        Koni
Gearbox:        Tyrrell longitudinal three-shaft 6-speed unit
Gear selection: Pneumatic, sequential
Drive shafts:   Tyrrell
Clutch:         AP Racing carbon plate
Differential:   Tyrrell/X-Trac viscous coupling
Wheels:         Fondmetal cast magnesium
Fuel and lube:  Elf
Brakes:         AP Racing

Engine:         Yamaha OX11A V-10
Cylinders:      V10 at 72 degree angle
Displacement:   2,996cc
Dry weight:     < 105 kg
Dimensions:     575mm x 499mm x 373mm
Max. power:     650+ bhp
Inject/ignit:   Zytek
Spark plugs:    NGK

Founded by Ken Tyrrell and owned by the Tyrrell family, the
Tyrrell Racing Organisation's history in F1 goes back to 1968
when it first entered the championship using Ford Cosworth
powered Matras. After winning both championships in 1969, with
Matra and Jackie Stewart, construction began on the first
Tyrrell GP car which made its debut at the 1970 Canadian GP. In
the next year, 1971, Tyrrell cars clinched the Constructor's
Championship and finished 1st and 3rd in the Driver's
Championship. Tyrrell has won a total of two Constructor's and
three Driver's titles as well as the 1987 Drivers and
Constructor's titles for normally aspirated cars.

2.11 Williams
     Engine:             Renault RS8
     Nationality:        British
     Key personnel:      Frank Williams - Owner
                         Patrick Head - Technical Director
                         Adrian Newey - Chief Designer
     Year formed:        1977
     1995 car/drivers:   FW17 - Coulthard, Hill
     1996 car/drivers:   FW18 - Hill, Villeneuve
     Formula 1 debut:    1977
     Address:            Williams Grand Prix Engineering Ltd.
                         Wantage OX12 0DQ  

Frank Williams began his Formula 1 career in 1969 at the age of
27 with his close friend Piers Courage and a private Brabham.
They finished 8th overall in the Driver's Championship. Courage
died the next year at the Dutch GP driving a car Williams was
running for the de Tomaso factory. 

After a disappointing partnership with Austro-Canadian oil man
Walter Wolf in 1976, his new team, Williams Grand Prix
Engineering, acquired a March for Patrick Neve to drive and
Williams recruited a promising engineer named Patrick Head.
Head's first GP design in 1978, the FW06, with Alan Jones at the
wheel, was extremely competitive. Williams first GP victory came
at the British GP in 1979 when Jones retired from the lead but
Clay Regazzoni took the victory for Williams. 

Williams quickly became the team to beat taking the
Constructor's championship with ease in 1980, 1981, 1986 and
1987.  Williams missed out on the constructor's championship in
1982 but Keke Rosberg did take the Driver's championship.
Williams responded slowly to the turbo era and struggled through
83 and 84. In 85 with Mansell joining Rosberg the team improved
through the year with the Williams-Honda FW10 taking the last
three races of the season. By 86 they were back on top with the
FW11 and, with Piquet replacing Rosberg, the team won 9 GPs
(Mansell 5, Piquet 4) giving Williams the constructor's
championship with ease although they lost the drivers
championship to Prost due to the in-team fighting. The modified
FW11 continued its dominance in 87 and Williams took 1st and 2nd
in the driver's championship and the constructor's championship.

1988 marked the end of the turbo era, Williams switched from
Honda to Judd for the FW12 and Mansell became the #1 driver
partnered by Ricardo Patrese. Williams suffered from mechanical
problems and in July 88 a three year deal was signed with
Renault for their new V10 engine. 

Thierry Boutsen replaced Mansell for the 89 season and won two
GPs (Canada and Australia) in atrocious weather conditions.
Patrese finished 3rd in the driver's championship helping the
team to runner-up spot in the constructor's.

Having retired from Ferrari and been talked out of it by
Williams, Mansell returned to the team at the end of 1990. The
Canon Williams FW14 was McLaren's only competition and with 7
victories they finished 2nd in the constructors and 2nd and 3rd
in the driver's. The advent of the active FW14B put Williams in
a class by themselves in 1992. Mansell won the first five races
of the season on his way to a still unbeaten total of 9 wins and
14 poles. His win at the British GP was his 28th beating Jackie
Stewart's record for a British driver. Mansell and Williams won
their respective championships and Patrese finished 2nd in the

In 93 Prost and Hill replaced Mansell and Patrese and retained
both constructor's and driver's (Prost) championships. Hill also
chalked up his first GP win in Hungary. Prost retired after the
season and was replaced by Senna. At the third GP of the year at
Imola in Italy, Senna was killed when he crashed his FW16 while
leading the race. It remains to be seen whether the Italian
authorities are going to charge Williams personnel in connection
with Senna's death. The team went on to retain the constructor's
championship again but Hill missed out on the driver's
championship by one point to Michael Schumacher.

Williams Home Page


3.1  Jean Alesi
     Nationality:        French
     Age - DOB:          31 - June 11th, 1964
     Born:               Avignon, France
     Resident:           Nyon, Switzerland
     Current team:       Benetton
     Former team(s):     Tyrrell, Ferrari

Alesi was born in France to Sicilian parents. Like many of his
contemporaries he began his career in karts but at the
relatively late age of 17. He won two regional titles and moved
on to the Renault 5 Cup in 1983 finishing 7th with 1 win. 1984
and '85 saw Alesi in Formula Renault finishing 10th and 5th
respectively. In '86 he competed in the French F3 championship
finishing 2nd in '86 and 1st in '87. The next two years were in
F3000 with Oreca in 88, finishing 10th, and Eddie Jordan in '89
finishing 1st.

In addition to the F3000 championship, Alesi also made his F1
debut in '89 with Tyrrell. He finished 4th in his first GP
(France) and went onto score a total of 8 points for 9th place
from just 8 races. He was retained by Tyrrell for the 1990
season and finished in 9th place with 13 points. In 1991 Alesi
was signed by Ferrari where he has remained for the last 5
seasons with rather disappointing results due no doubt to the
unreliable and/or uncompetitive cars that Ferrari has put out in
the last few years. Between 1991 and 1994 Alesi has scored 13,
21, 18 and 16 points respectively placing him 7th, 7th, 6th and
5th in the championship. Ferrari was much improved in 95 and
Alesi finished the season with 42 points placing him 5th in the
championship. '95 also saw Alesi's first ever GP win in Canada.
In an emotional finish, Alesi brought the #27 Ferrari across the
line first before an adoring French-Canadian crowd in Montreal.
Alesi, along with his Ferrari team-mate Berger, have both been
signed by Benetton for the '96 season.

Jean is single.

3.2  Luca Badoer        
     Nationality:        Italian  
     Age - DOB:          25 - January 24th 1971
     Born:               Montebelluna, Italy
     Resident:           Montebelluna
     Current team:       Forti
     Former team(s):     BMS Scuderia Italia, Minardi

Between 1985 and 1988 Badoer raced karts winning regional and
national championships. In 89 he moved on to F3 before spending
one season in F3000 in 1992. He broke into F1 in 1993 with BMS
Scuderia Italia and after their demise he signed with Minardi as
test driver. In 95 he raced for Minardi with little distinction,
his best finish being 8th, before signing with Forti for the
1996 season.

Luca is single.  

3.3  Rubens Barrichello
     Nationality:        Brazilian
     Age - DOB:          24 - May 23rd, 1972
     Born:               Sao Paolo, Brazil
     Resident:           Monaco
     Current team:       Jordan
     Former team(s):     None

Barrichello began his racing career at the age of 9, competing
in and winning various local and national karting championships
between 1983 and 1988. In 1989 he moved onto Formula Ford and
finished 4th in the Brazilian championship with the Arisco team.
In 1990 he moved to Europe and won the Opel-Lotus European
championship with the Draco team and in 1991 followed up by
winning the British F3 championship with West Surrey Racing. In
1992 he finished 3rd in the F3000 championship with Il Barone
Rampante. He joined Jordan in 1993 and has experienced
increasing success in his 3 seasons in F1. In '93 he gained 2
points, in '94 he finished 6th in the driver's championship with
19 points, his first rostrum finish and pole at Spa - the
youngest pole-sitter ever at the age of 22. In '95 he had an
unspectacular season finishing 11th with 11 points.

Rubens is single with no children.

3.4  Gerhard Berger
     Nationality:        Austrian
     Age - DOB:          36 - August 27th, 1959
     Born:               Woergl, Austria
     Resident:           Monaco
     Current team:       Benetton
     Former team(s):     ATS, Arrows, Benetton, Ferrari, McLaren
Now in his 12th year of F1 racing, Berger is one of the elder
statesmen of the sport. His career began in saloon cars in 1979.
In 1981 he competed in the Alfasud European Cup (finishing 7th)
before moving onto F3 the next year. Berger spent 3 years in F3
and at the end of 1984 broke into F1 with ATS. He competed in 4
races that season gaining 1 point for a 6th place at the Italian
GP. Berger signed with Arrows for the 1985 season and has been a
permanent feature of F1 ever since driving for Benetton (86), 
Ferrari (87-89), McLaren (90-92) and Ferrari again (93-95). 

Although he has never managed to win it all, Berger has had
several successful seasons. His best championship finish was 3rd
in 1988, his best points total was 49 in '92 which was only good
enough for 5th place. He has a total of 9 wins in his career
with a high of 2 in a season in 87 and 92. '95 was a
disappointing year finishing 6th with 31 points. For the '96
season Berger returns to Benetton, the team for whom he scored
his, and Benetton's, first GP win in Mexico in '86. 

Gerhard is married with one child.

3.5  Martin Brundle
     Nationality:        British (English)
     Age - DOB:          37 - June 1st, 1959          
     Born:               King's Lynn, England
     Resident:           Gayton, Norfolk, England
     Current team:       Jordan
     Former team(s):     Tyrrell, Zakspeed, Williams, Brabham,
                         Benetton, Ligier, McLaren, Ligier

Martin Brundle started his racing career in 1973 at the age of
12 driving a self-built Ford Anglia at a grass track car near
West Norfolk home. He has not missed a season in the subsequent
23 years.

Martin started Hot Rod short oval racing in 1975. The 70 mph
quarter mile tracks were the site of many wins and gave Martin
"star grade" status, preparing him for the cut and thrust of
circuit racing. Just a few days after his 17th birthday he
acquired a circuit racing license which signalled the beginning
of his saloon car racing achievements. His first proper circuit
race was at Oulton Park in 1977 and he went straight out and put
his Toyota Celica on pole position. 

1979 brought with it Martin's first single seater opportunity in
FF2000. A win and several placings followed rapidly and the
success prompted Martin to write a letter to Tom Walkinshaw
requesting the opportunity to drive one of his entries in the
BMW Championship at Snetterton. Amazingly Walkinshaw agreed and
Martin lined up on the front row against an international field,
eventually finishing second.

In 1980 he won the BMW Championship and competed successfully in
the FF2000 series. Lack of sponsorship the following year
limited his programme to saloon cars where he partnered the
great Stirling Moss in the BP/Audi team.

BP came forward with a budget in 1982 which enabled him to move
up into the British F3 championship. The investment was well
rewarded with five pole positions and two race wins. The
performance was enough to gain the prestigious Grovewood Award
as the season's most promising Commonwealth driver.

Martin's potential had also been recognized by the Eddie Jordan
who signed him to race for his fledgling F3 team in 1983. It was
to be a memorable season with Brundle battling against Ayrton
Senna in one of the most closely contested F3 championships of
recent years. The Brazilian eventually took victory in the final
laps of the final race of the year. The performances of both had
not gone unnoticed though and they were immediately snapped up
by F1 teams: Martin went to Tyrrell and immediately lived up to
expectations by finishing 5th on his F1 debut at the '84 season
opener in Brazil. He went on to record his first rostrum finish
in his 8th GP, collecting a second place at Detroit behind
Nelson Piquet. The team was subsequently excluded from the
championship for a technical infringement and all Martin's
points for the season were disallowed.

He spent a total of three years with Tyrrell before moving to
the German Zakspeed team for 1987. His driving wasn't confined
solely to single-seaters though; he began a highly successful
stint in the European Touring Car Championship in 1982 with a
winning drive in the TWR XJS at Donnington. Nine wins followed
in '83 and '84  and he was chosen as lead driver when Jaguar
returned to the World Sportscar Championship at Mosport, Canada 
in 1985. He won again in '87  at Spa and the following season
left F1 altogether signing instead to drive for Jaguar in the
USA IMSA and the World Group C Championships. '88 started with a
win in January in the famous Daytona 24 hour event and ended up
with a win in October when he claimed the World Championship
crown at Suzuka, Japan. A test schedule with the Williams GP
team, for whom he also competed in the Belgian GP in place of an
unwell Mansell, completed an exhausting year for Brundle.

He was back in full-time F1 drive in 1989, signing for the
Brabham team. Limited GP success was compensated for in 1990 by
an IMSA GTP and WSC programme and winning the prestigious Le
Mans 24 hour race for Jaguar. He also made history by finishing
1st and 2nd in the same race at Monza in 1991 driving both of
the stunning Jaguar XJR 14s.

1992 was his most successful F1 season to date. He held his own
against Michael Schumacher in the Benetton Ford team - one of
few drivers to do so - scoring points in 11 of the 16 races
including 5 podium finishes, to record 6th overall in the
Driver's Championship. Unfortunately, politics intervened the
next year and, to everyone's surprise, he was replaced by
Ricardo Patrese for 1993. He moved to the French Ligier team
with whom he finished 7th in the 93 championship highlighted by
a podium finish in the San Marino GP.

Early '94 saw some brinkmanship taking place as Brundle gambled
on, and claimed the McLaren seat vacated by Senna's move to
Williams. 2nd and 3rd in Monaco and Australia were the high
points - poor reliability was the low point although once again
he finished 7th in the championship.

He moved back to Ligier in 95  but once again politics played a
part in his career. In a quest to satisfy their home market.
engine suppliers Mugen-Honda insisted he share his seat with
Japanese driver Aguri Suzuki who raced in 6 of 17 events. Martin
was Eddie Jordan's first choice when it came to replacing Irvine
and after a season of uncertainty Brundle was delighted to take
up the offer to drive for Jordan in 96.

Martin is married with two children.

3.6  David Coulthard
     Nationality:        British (Scottish)
     Age - DOB:          25 - 27th March 1971
     Born:               Twynholm, Scotland 
     Resident:           Twynholm and Monaco
     Current team:       McLaren 
     Former team(s):     Williams

After a successful karting career, Coulthard rose rapidly to F1
through FF1600, F3 and F3000. As Williams test driver in 1994,
he took Senna's place at the Spanish GP and in the remaining
eight races he scored 14 points. He retained his seat in 95 and
has shown much promise, particularly since being released by
Williams and signed by McLaren midway through the season. He
joined the ranks of GP winners with a strong drive from pole
position at the Portuguese GP. He finished the '95 season with
49 points in 3rd place.

David is single with no children.

3.7  Pedro Diniz          
     Nationality:        Brazilian        
     Age - DOB:          26 - May 22nd, 1970
     Born:               Sao Paolo, Brazil
     Current team:       Ligier
     Former team(s):     Forti

Diniz raced karts for just two years before moving up to Formula
Ford in 1989. '90-92 were spent in F3, first in South America
and then Europe. He joined the Forti team in 1993 in F3000 where
he spent two years before moving up to F1 with Forti in 95. His
best finish was 9th at the Italian GP.

3.8  Juan Manuel Fangio
     Nationality:        Argentine
     Age - DOB:          June 24th, 1911 - July 17th, 1995
     Born:               Balcarce, Argentina
     Current team:
     Former team(s):     Alfa, Maserati, Mercedes Benz, Ferrari,

Although subject to eternal debate, Fangio is widely regarded as
the greatest driver ever. Certainly his record of 5 world
championships still stands and his winning percentage of almost
50% (24 of 51) is clear evidence of his unchallenged supremacy
in the 50s. 

He began racing in 1934 mainly in long-distance road races in
Argentina before moving to Europe and F1 racing in 1949. In the
first year of the FIA championship (1950) he won three of six
races finishing second in the championship to Farina. The next
year he won the first of his championships driving an Alfa and
taking 3 of 7 GPs. In '52 he crashed out of the non-championship
Monza GP and did not compete for the rest of the season. He
returned in a Maserati in '53 to his worst season, winning only
one of eight GPs. Switching from Maserati to Mercedes Benz to
Ferrari and back to Maserati,  between '54 and '57 he was almost
unbeatable, winning 17 of 28 GPs and the championship four years
in a row. He competed in just two GPs in 1958 before retiring.

Unlike many of his contemporaries, Fangio lived to a ripe old
age and died in 1995 after being admitted to hospital suffering
from pneumonia. 

3.9  Giancarlo Fisichella  
     Nationality:        Italian
     Age - DOB:          23 - January 14th, 1973
     Born:               Rome, Italy
     Resident:           Monte Carlo
     Current team:       Minardi
     Former team(s):     None

Fisichella won several karting championships between 1984 and
1991 before moving up to the Italian F3 championship in 1992. In
'93 he finished 2nd in Italian F3 and won the championship in
'94. In '95 he raced in DTM for Alfa Romeo and was also signed
as test driver for Minardi. He made his F1 debut in 96 and is
currently sharing the drive with Tarso Marques.

Giancarlo is single.

3.10 Heinz-Harald Frentzen
     Nationality:        German
     Age - DOB:          29 - May 18th, 1967
     Born:               Mochengladbach, Germany
     Resident:           Monte Carlo
     Current team:       Sauber
     Former team(s):     None

After a relatively successful 95 season in a middle-of-the-grid
car, Heinz-Harald Frentzen is widely regarded as one of the up
and coming drivers of F1. He began racing in karts winning the
German Junior championship in 1981. From 85 - 87 he competed in
FF2000 finishing 2nd in '87. In '88 he was German Formula Opel
Lotus champion and was 6th in the Opel Lotus Euroseries. He
spent one year in German F3, finishing 2nd, before moving onto
F3000 in 1990. He spent one season each with Eddie Jordan and
Vortex before accepting a financially attractive offer to move
to Japan and race for the Nova team. In 1994, he made his F1
debut for the Sauber team and scored a total of 7 points in 15
races. With three races left in 95 he has scored 15 points
putting him behind only the Benettons, Williams and Ferraris. He
has re-signed with Sauber for 96.

Heinz-Harald is single with no children. (You will see posts
referring to the fact that he once dated Schumacher's wife -
before she was his wife, of course).

3.11 Mika Hakkinen
     Nationality:        Finnish
     Age - DOB:          27 - September 28th, 1968
     Born:               Helsinki, Finland
     Resident:           Monte Carlo
     Current team:       McLaren
     Former team(s):     Lotus

Mika Hakkinen has been driving since he was six years old,
capturing 5 Finnish national karting championships between 1974
and 1986. He then progressed into FF1600 - a category which he
duly conquered by being crowned Finnish, Swedish and Nordic
Champion - the Lotus Euroseries and the British GM Lotus series,
becoming champion and runner-up respectively. A year after
entering the British F3 championship in 1989 he won the  Macau
Grand Prix on his way to the overall title.

He broke into F1 in 1991 with Lotus where he stayed for two
years finishing the championship 15th and 8th with 2 points and
11 points respectively. He joined McLaren as Test and
Development driver in 93, being elevated to the position of race
driver for the final three rounds of the championship following
Michael Andretti's departure to return to Indy Car. In his first
race for McLaren at the Portuguese GP Hakkinen outqualified his
team-mate, Ayrton Senna. He scored his first ever F1 podium
finish with a 3rd place at the Japanese GP. In 94 he finished
2nd at the Belgian GP and 3rd in four other races ending the
season 4th in the championship with 26 points. He finished '95
with 17 points in 7th place - not to mention a nasty crash
during practice in Adelaide which almost ended his career, if
not his life. He has recovered physically and does not appear to
have been affected mentally by the crash. 

Mika is single with no children.

3.12 Johnny Herbert        
     Nationality:        British (English)
     Age - DOB:          31 - June 27th, 1964
     Born:               Romford, England
     Resident:           Monaco    
     Current team:       Sauber
     Former team(s):     Benetton, Tyrrell, Lotus, Ligier,      

One of the most popular figures in F1, Johnny Herbert began his
racing career in karts at the age of 10 winning two British
championships over the next 8 years. He moved onto FF1600 in
1983 and FF2000 and F3 in 1986. In 1987 he won the British F3
championship with Eddie Jordan Racing and was signed by Benetton
as a test driver. In 1988 he moved up to F3000 with Jordan,
winning his first race at Jerez before being seriously injured
at Brands Hatch. Despite not being fully recovered from his
injuries he started the 1989 season for Benetton in F1 scoring a
4th and a 5th place before being rested by the team at
mid-season. He returned briefly to F1 the same year with

In 1990 Herbert was the test driver for Lotus and raced
intermittently for the team for the next two years. He continued
with Lotus for 92 and 93 on a full time basis and finished 14th
and 9th respectively. He raced for three teams in 94 - Lotus,
Ligier and then Benetton for the last two races. He stayed with
Benetton for the 95 season and finished 4th in the championship
winning his first GP at the British GP. Towards the end of the
season, he complained bitterly about his treatment at the hands
of Benetton and Schumacher. 

He is married with two daughters.

3.13 Damon Hill
     Nationality:        British (English)
     Age - DOB:          35 - September 17th, 1960
     Born:               London, England
     Resident:           Dublin, Ireland
     Current team:       Williams
     Former team(s):     Williams (test), Brabham

Damon is the son of two-time F1 champion, the late Graham Hill.
Damon Hill actually began his racing career on motorbikes in
1979. In '84, while still racing bikes, he had his first taste
of auto racing in Formula Ford. In 1985 he switched to FF full
time and finished 3rd in the Esso championship with 6 wins. He
moved onto F3 in 86 with Murray Taylor Racing and then with
Intersport in 87 and 88. From 89 to 91 he competed in F3000 with
Footwork, Middlemarch and Lola without great success except that
he did get a testing contract with Williams in 91 replacing Mark

Hill broke into F1 the next year, 1992, with Brabham, again
without great success. In eight attempts in an uncompetitive
car, he qualified just twice finishing 16th and 11th. His big
break came in 93 when he signed for Williams. That year he
scored he scored his first F1 win in Hungary, completing a
hat-trick over the next two races in Belgium and Italy. He
finished the season with 69 points for 3rd place in the

In '94, still with Williams, Hill came as close to winning it
all as is possible without actually doing it. Coming in to the
last race of the season in Adelaide, Hill trailed Michael
Schumacher by one point. Depending on your point of view they
either had a coming together or Schumacher drove into Hill
thereby securing the Championship by that one point margin.

Hill again challenged Schumacher for most of the '95 season but
fell apart somewhat in the second half of the season. He
finished 2nd in the championship with 69 points.

Damon is married with two sons and a daughter.

3.14 Eddie Irvine
     Nationality:        Irish
     Age - DOB:          30 - November 10th, 1965
     Born:               Newtownards, Northern Ireland
     Resident:           Dublin, Ireland
     Current team:       Ferrari
     Former team(s):     Jordan

Irvine began racing in FF1600 and competed in Irish and British
FF1600 series between 1983 and 1987. In 1988 he placed 5th in
the F3 championship with West Surrey Racing. In 1989 he moved
onto F3000 with Pacific Racing and finished 9th in the
International Championship. He first teamed up with Eddie Jordan
in F3000 in 1990 when he finished 3rd (recording one win).
Between 1991 and 1993 he competed in the Japanese F3000
championship with Team Cerumo finishing 7th, 8th and 2nd with
one win each year. '93 also saw Irvine's F1 debut with 2 races
for Jordan scoring a point in Japan.

Irvine raced the entire 94 season for Jordan, with the exception
of a 3 race ban for an accident at the Brazilian GP, scoring 6
points placing him 16th. He finished '95 with 10 points having
suffered from unreliability including a fire from a re-fueling
accident. In a surprising, last minute move he was signed by
Ferrari for '96 over a gaggle of Italian drivers who thought
were trying out for the role.

Eddie is single with no children.

3.15 Ukyo Katayama
     Nationality:        Japanese
     Age - DOB:          33 - May 29th, 1963
     Born:               Tokyo
     Resident:           Tokyo and Monaco
     Current team:       Tyrrell
     Former team(s):     Larrousse

After graduating high school in 1982, Katayama trained as a
mechanic at the Tsukuba Circuit in Japan before switching to
driving, taking class and championships in FJ1600, after winning
his very first race from pole position. In 1985 he graduated to
the All Japan F3 Series with the Nissan Hasemi team and finished
6th in the championship. In 1986, he moved to France competing
in the National Formula Renault and French F3 series. In 1988 he
returned to Japan competing in the Japanese F3000 Championship
for Ba-Tsu Racing in '88, Footwork in '89 and Cabin in '90 and
'91 - winning the championship in '91.

1992 marked Katayama's Formula 1 debut with Venturi Larrousse
with two top 10 finishes. In 1993, he moved to Tyrrell where he
has remained for the last three seasons with somewhat limited
success. He scored 5 points in 1994 but in 95 he finished 4
races and his best finish was 7th in the German GP. Katayama was
involved in a scary accident at the start of the Portuguese GP
when he locked wheels with Badoer and was launched into the air,
somersaulting down the track. He did not sustain any serious
injuries and missed only one race. He has been re-signed by
Tyrrell for the '96 season.

Ukyo is married with two children.

3.16 Pedro Lamy   
     Nationality:        Portuguese
     Age - DOB:          23 - March 20th 1972
     Born:               Aldeia Galega, Portugal
     Resident:           Lisbon
     Current team:       Minardi
     Former teams(s):    Lotus

Between 1978 and 1988 Lamy competed in motocross and karting
before stepping up to Formula Ford and winning the national
championship in 1989. In 90 and 91 he raced in the GM Lotus
Euroseries winning the championship in 1991. In 92 he was German
F3 Champion and in 93 he shared the International F3000
championship. 93 also marked his F1 debut with Team Lotus at the
Italian GP. He drove for Lotus 4 more times in 94 before joining
Minardi for the 95 Hungarian GP. 

Pedro is single.

3.17 Jan Magnussen
     Nationality:        Danish
     Age - DOB:          22 - July 4th, 1973
     Born:               Roskilde, Denmark
     Resident:           Silverstone, England
     Current team:       McLaren (test)
     Former teams(s):    None

Jan Magnussen has been described by Jackie Stewart as "the most
promising youngster to come along since Ayrton Senna." He ended
his karting days in 1991 with a hat-trick of world championships
and moved to England to compete in the 1992 British FF1600
championship for Foundation Racing. Having become familiar with
the car and the circuits, he won 7 races in the second half of
the season, including the prestigious Formula Ford Festival at
Brands Hatch, and finished 3rd in the championship.

In 1993 after spells in the Formula Vauxhall Lotus and Opel
Lotus European Championship, he made his F3 debut competing in
two races for Paul Stewart Racing finishing 4th and 3rd. The
next season, still with Paul Stewart Racing, he clinched the
championship in the most dominant fashion ever achieved in the
history of F3 racing by winning 14 out of 18 races - that season
brought him the nickname of "Danish Dynamite."

In October 94, Magnussen drove the McLaren MP4/9 as a reward for
his achievement and was subsequently signed as the team's test
driver. Due to Hakkinen's appendicitis, Magnussen made his F1
debut at the '95 Japanese GP.

Jan is single with one son.

3.18 Tarso Marques    
     Nationality:        Brazilian
     Age - DOB:          20 - January 19th, 1976
     Born:               Curitiba (Parana), Brazil
     Resident:           Curitiba
     Current team:       Minardi
     Former team(s):     None

From 1988 to 1991 Marques raced karts before moving onto Formula
Opel in '92, F3 in '93 and F3000 in '94. His F1 debut was with
Minardi this year and he is currently sharing the drive with

3.19 Andrea Montermini    
     Nationality:        Italian
     Age - DOB:          32 - May 30th, 1964
     Current team:       Forti
     Former team(s):     Ferrari (test), Benetton (test), Simtek

Montermini began racing in 1987 in Formula Alfa Boxer moving
onto Italian F3 in 1988. Between 1990 and 92 he competed in
F3000 finishing 8th, 10th and 2nd, getting his first taste of F1
as a test driver with Ferrari in 91. In 93 he went Indy racing,
as well as testing for Benetton, finishing the championship in
18th position. He started 94 in Indy before getting his first
shot at competitive F1 with Simtek at the Spanish GP. However,
he crashed during practice and broke both feet and did not start
the race. After recovering from the crash he finished the Indy
season before signing with Pacific for the 1995 season. After 14
rounds, Montermini has started every race but has only been
classified 3 times with a best finish of 8th at the German GP. 

3.20 Olivier Panis
     Nationality:        French
     Age - DOB:          29 - September 2nd, 1966
     Current team:       Ligier
     Former team(s):

3.21 Mika Salo 
     Nationality:        Finnish
     Age - DOB:          29 - November 30th, 1966
     Born:               Helsinki
     Resident:           London    
     Current team:       Tyrrell
     Former team(s):     Lotus

Salo started racing 50cc karts at the age of 6, moving onto the
100cc Finnish championship by 9 and winning it at the age of 11.
After 11 months national service in the army, he competed in the
Finnish and Scandinavian F1600 Championships in 1987. In 1988 he
became European, Scandinavian and Finnish champion, winning all
14 races and setting new lap records at every circuit.

From 1989-1990 Mika lived in the UK competing in F3 with Alan
Docker Racing. From 1991-3 he competed in the All Japan F3000
championship with less than spectacular results. In 1994 he
joined Lotus for the final two races of the season recording
10th and a DNF in Japan and Australia respectively. He joined
Tyrrell in 1995 and has finished in the points three times - two
5ths and a sixth. He has been re-signed by Tyrrell for '96.

Mika is single with no children.

3.22 Michael Schumacher
     Nationality:        German
     Age - DOB:          27 - January 3rd, 1969
     Born:               Hurth-Hermuhlhein, Germany
     Resident:           Geneva     
     Current team:       Ferrari
     Former team(s):     Jordan, Benetton

Michael Schumacher began racing karts with some success from
1984 to 1987. In '88 he won the German Formula Konig
championship, finished 4th and 2nd in the German and European
FF1600 championships respectively. 1989 was an interesting year
competing in the German F3 championship - he finished 3rd behind
Wendlinger and Frentzen. He continued in F3 the next year and
won the championship with 5 wins.

1991 marked his F1 debut with Jordan and then with Benetton for
the rest of the season from Italy onwards. (There is still a
pending lawsuit filed by Eddie Jordan regarding Schumacher's
move to Benetton). He finished the year with 4 points.
Schumacher began to show his potential in 92 winning his first
GP and coming 3rd in the driver's championship. The next year
again produced one win and he finished 4th in the championship.

1994 of course marked Schumacher's first world championship
amidst much controversy and last year he easily repeated this
feat helping Benetton to the constructors title in the process.

Michael is married with no children.

3.23 Ayrton Senna
     Nationality:        Brazilian
     Age - DOB:          Died 1994, aged 34
     Born:               Sao Paolo, Brazil
     Current team:
     Former team(s):     Toleman, Lotus, McLaren, Williams

Ayrton Senna Home Page

3.24 Jos Verstappen                          
     Nationality:        Dutch
     Age - DOB:          24 - March 4th, 1972
     Born:               Montfort (Lb), The Netherlands
     Resident:           Maaseik, Belgium
     Current team:       Arrows
     Former team(s):     Benetton, Simtek (5 races)

3.25 Jacques Villeneuve
     Nationality:        Canadian
     Age - DOB:          25 - April 9th, 1971
     Born:               St. Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada
     Resident:           Monaco
     Current team:       Williams
     Former team(s):     Indycar - Team Green

Jacques Villeneuve, son of legendary F1 driver Gilles
Villeneuve, is the talk of the F1 world this year as he attempts
to become the first successful Indycar transplant since Mario
Andretti. His meteoric rise through motor racing's ranks
culminated last year when he became the youngest ever, and first
Canadian, PPG Indycar champion.

His career began in Italian Group N Saloons in 1988. He quickly
moved on to F3 in Italy in 1989 where he stayed for three
seasons. In 1992 he moved to Japanese F3 and finished the season
in 2nd place. In '93 he moved to the American Toyota Atlantic
Championship and had a very impressive season being named Rookie
of the Year. In 15 races he had seven poles and five wins and
finished third in the championship. Villeneuve moved with Team
Green to Indycar in '94. He finished the season with a win, 2nd
at the Indianapolis 500 and 6th place in the championship
earning him Rookie of the Year honors. He fulfilled his
potential in 95 winning the championship with four wins
including the Indianapolis 500.  

On August 10th he signed with Williams for the 96 season and has
done a considerable amount of testing with the team between that
time and the start of the season. He is generally expected to
win some races in his first season and possibly have a shot at
the championship. 

Jacques is single.


4.1 How many points are scored for a win? [MJ]

Currently points are awarded for the first six finishers as
follows: 10 - 6 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1. This applies to both the
driver's and constructor's championships. Each team is allowed
to enter two cars and both cars scores are counted towards the
constructor's championship. 

If a race is stopped, due to accident or weather, before
completion of 75% of the race distance, only half the points
will be awarded for that race.

4.2 Is that a brake light on the back of the cars?

No. The red light you will occasionally see on the back of the
cars is not a brake light and is required by the rules for
visibility in wet races. The light is required to be on whenever
the car is on treaded tyres.

4.3 The start 

The starting procedure has been changed for 1996. The countdown
begins 17 minutes before the parade lap with a series of lights
and horns. The parade lap is started with a green light. The
cars proceed in grid order returning to their spots on the
starting grid. Transponders in the car signal to the officials
when all the cars are in position and the actual start procedure
begins. There are now five red lights and NO green light. The
five red lights will come on one at a time at one second
intervals. When the fifth light comes on the jump start system
is activated. At a pre-set, but unpublished interval, all five
red lights will go out and that is the signal to start. NB There
is no green light. This system eliminates the potential problem
of the red light going out but the green light failing to come
on. Such a situation has happened in the past and causes
enormous confusion and is potentially very dangerous. Also,
disabling the jump start system until immediately before the
start should eliminate some of the bogus penalties we saw last
year when the system was activated when the car stopped.

4.4 The finish [CS] & [HG]

When the leader crosses the line and the chequered flag is waved
at him, all drivers finish the lap which they are currently
driving. The top positions go to the drivers on the same lap as
the winner, in the order in which they crossed the line. The
next positions go to those drivers who completed one fewer lap
than the leader, in the order in which they crossed the line,
and so on. Should a driver fail to cross the line (due to an
accident, for example), his (or her) finishing position is based
on the race position the last time (s)he crossed the
start/finish line.

An example may help: It's the 50-lap US GP and the first 4
drivers at the end of lap 49 are Diniz, Hill, Schumacher and
Inoue. Fifth is Katayama, one lap down. Diniz crosses the line
at the end of lap 50 first to take the chequered flag and win
the race. Katayama is the next driver to cross the finish line
(albeit after only 49 laps) and is awarded 5th place, since
there were 4 drivers on the lead lap (who all completed 49 laps
before him). On lap 50, however, Hill and Schumacher collide and
both retire. Inoue is the only other driver to finish 50 laps
and is awarded 2nd place. Since Hill completed 49 laps ahead of
Schumacher, he gets 3rd place and Schumacher is awarded 4th.

All drivers who have completed at least 90% of the distance
driven by the winner are classified as finishers. 

All finishers must get themselves weighed, put the car in the
'parc ferme' for scrutiny and submit to any other tests
required. Top three must attend the podium ceremony and give a
press conference afterwards, or get fined. Press conferences
take place in a variety of languages - all the top drivers speak
English fluently enough for an interview. Naturally none of the
English drivers speak anything else! (It is noticeable how much
improved Schumacher's English has become in the last two years -
he sounds more American than German now; Berger also is fluent
enough to tell jokes thanks to his long spell at McLaren)

4.5 What is the safety car for? [HG]

Once this is deployed, the 'SC' board is shown and drivers must
slow down and circulate in their current order. The car waves
past each driver in turn, until the race leader is behind him.
Then all circulate until the race is deemed safe to continue,
with the safety car displaying flashing amber lights. Switching
off these lights indicates that the safety car will pull off
next time it reaches the pit entrance; once it does, the race

It should be noted that, unlike Indy, safety cars are rarely
used in F1. In fact, in the semi-permanent "What's the
difference between F1 and Indy" thread, the excessive use of the
safety car to close up the field is the major criticism of Indy
racing by F1 fans.

4.6 What is a stop-go penalty? 

Jump starts and pit lane speeding incur a 10 second 'stop-go'
penalty. Unlike last year, penalties are served in the team's
own pit under the supervision of the team manager. If the team
does not administer the penalty correctly and the driver leaves
before the 10 seconds is up, then they will be called back for
another 10 second penalty. As the officials with the big clock
are no longer involved in this process it is unclear who times
the timers. 

Other offenses can incur fines, loss of points,
disqualifications or race bans. Decisions can be appealed but
historically the FIA has a propensity for increasing a penalty
on appeal.

4.7 What do the different colored flags mean? [HG]

Yellow - caution; no overtaking/safety car out.
Yellow with red stripes - track is slippery (usually oil).
Blue - There is considerable controversy regarding the exact use
of blue flags. This is because the instructions given to the
marshalls contradict the International Sporting Code. This
definition is based on written instructions from the clerk of
the course to marshalls at at least two GPs this season.

  During Practice
  Stationary: A faster car is catching you. Give way.
  Waved:      A faster car is about to overtake you. Give way   

  During the Race
  Stationary: You are about to be lapped. Let the other car     
  Waved:      Let the other car through immediately. You are now
              risking a penalty.

(NB: The International Sporting Code states that a blue flag may
be used to allow a faster car to overtake for position. However,
its use in races appears to be almost exclusively limited to
situations where a driver is being lapped).

Red - race stopped, slow down and return to pit lane.
Chequered - race finished.
Black, with a car number  - car must return to pit lane within 3
laps and not restart race (this may mean a terminal rule
infringement, but it can also mean that there is something
dangerously wrong with the car that the driver does not know
about - hence it is grossly negligent to ignore this flag)

4.8 Is mid-race re-fueling allowed?

After being banned for 10 years for safety reasons, mid-race re-
fueling was inexplicably reintroduced for the 1994 season. The
re-fueling equipment used by all the teams is identical as the
FIA mandates that the equipment be bought from Intertechnique
and may not be modified by the teams. Fuel is pumped at a rate
of 12 liters (3.3 gallons) per second.

Apart from the FIA, almost everybody associated with F1, fans,
drivers and teams, believe that re-fueling is inherently
dangerous and that, if not before, it will finally be banned
when somebody is killed or seriously injured in a re-fueling
accident. Since its reintroduction in '94 there have already
been three pit-lane fires caused by re-fueling: Verstappen
(Benetton) in '94, Irvine (Jordan) and Gachot (Pacific) in '95
and Diniz's on-track fire in '96 was due to the re-fueling valve
becoming stuck open. 

4.9 What is the 107% rule?

Introduced for the 1996 season, the 107% rule is designed to
weed out the slower cars in the field. Any driver whose best
qualifying time is more than 107% of the pole-sitters time will
not qualify for the race. For example, if the pole time is 1 min
40 secs (100 seconds), then any car slower than 1 min 47 seconds
(107 seconds) will not be in the race. The rule does allow for
some discretion on the part of the stewards but so far the rule
has been strictly applied and it is not clear whether a car
which is normally fast will be allowed on the grid if unusual
circumstances prevent a qualifying time from being posted. To
date, only Forti has been affected by this rule.

4.10 Who is eligible for a super license?  [VH]

A total of 49 drivers are automatically eligible for 1996
Superlicenses as of January 1st, 1996 having met one of the
following requirements:

F1 (at least started for 5 events in 1995) Superlicense & Grade
A license required in order to compete

Indycar (Top 3 in at least 5 events or top 6 in at least 10
events, 1994-5) Grade A licenses required in order to compete

International F3000 (Top 3 in at least 5 events or top 6 in at
least 10 events, 1994-5) Grade A licenses required in order to

Japanese F3000 (Top 3 in at least 5 events or top 6 in at least
10 events, 1994-5) Grade B licenses required in order to compete

Major National F3 champions (Britain, France, Italy, German &
Japanese F3 in 1995) 

All have to have a Grade A license in the first place in order
to apply for Superlicenses. Grade A licenses are required in
order to compete in F1, International F3000 and IndyCar
championships. Hence all eligible drivers from these three
categories obviously are already holders of the Grade A
licenses. The Japanese F3000 & National F3 eligible drivers have
Grade A licenses because they have at least 5 top 5 finishes in
1994-5 in various national and international races.

Superlicenses can be gained by past racing records AND 300km in
a maximum of 2 days testing a current F1 machine under racing
speed. It is, however, a purely judgmental decisions by the FIA
in regarding the applicant's past racing records. While drivers
like Alain Prost who is a four time World Champion and also a
current McLaren test driver can have no problem in applying for
a Superlicense, other drivers' applications such as Giovanni
Lavaggi (who drove more than 300km combined practice, qualifying
and race from Saturday to Sunday in the 1995 D GP) may not be as


5.1 Why V10 engines?     [PF]

The V10 is a nice compromise, from two points of view --
performance and packaging.

Twelves are good for high-revving, top-endy stuff (this is why
Ferraris were usually quick at the likes of Monza and
Hockenheim). Eights are torquey and good throughout the range.
So a ten is a good compromise there. You get more piston area in
a 10 than an 8 -- which means more power, but can run a rather
longer stroke than a 12 -- which tends to mean more

Similarly, the reciprocating components are a nice compromise
between the relative simplicity of an eight and the difficulty
of a 12.

Twelves are generally long and narrow -- the 'classical'
60-degree angle doesn't give much space within the vee to put
ancillaries in. Eights are short, but relatively chubby, with a
classical vee angle of 90 degrees. (Ok, Ferrari are about
65-degrees these days and Ford are down to about 75, but
the generalization remains roughly valid). V10s have length
advantages over the 12 and width advantages over the 8 --
they're typically between 67 and 72 degrees.

It's perhaps significant that next year there'll only be
customer Fords and Harts left as V8s in F1 -- everyone else will
be running 10s, including Sauber-Ford and Ferrari. It looks like
the 8 and the 12 are, for the time being, dead ducks. (it's a
pity Hart didn't persevere with a 3l version of his excellent

5.2 How big are the engines?

Although subject to change periodically, engines are currently
limited to 3 liter, reciprocating, normally aspirated with no
more than 12 cylinders. These engines produce approximately 750
bhp down from a high of about 1,200 bhp that could be produced
by the now banned V6, 1.5l turbo-charged engines.

5.3 How much does a car weigh?

The minimum weight for an F1 car is 585 kg (1,287 lbs) including
the driver and 5kg (11 lbs) for either an on board camera or
mandatory ballast for those cars not carrying cameras.
Regulations define minimum weights to ensure that safety is not
compromised by the engineer's efforts to improve performance by
making the car lighter.

5.4 What is the tub made of?

The tub, the part that the driver sits in, is made of a
composite material consisting of an aluminum honeycomb
sandwiched between two sheets of carbon. The result is an
extremely strong, lightweight material. Smaller sections, such
as the nose-cone and engine cover, use a nomex honeycomb instead
of aluminum to allow greater flexibility. 

5.5  How many gears do the cars have?

The regulations state that the cars must have at least 4 and no
more than 7 forward gears as well as a reverse gear. Most cars
have 6 forward gears, Jordan and Benetton being the only cars
with 7 speed gearboxes. 

5.6  Interesting engine facts. (Based on a Ford Zetec-R).

     *In an F1 engine revving at 14,500 rpm, one revolution     
      takes 4 thousandths of a second.
     *Maximum piston acceleration is approximately 8,000g which 
      puts a load of over 3 tons on each connecting rod.
     *Maximum piston speed is 47.2 meters per second - the      
      piston in a Ford Zetec-R accelerates from rest to that    
      speed in 1 thousandth of a second.
     *If a connecting rod let go of its piston at maximum engine
      speed, the released piston would have enough energy to    
      travel vertically over 100 meters.
     *If a water hose were to blow off, the complete cooling    
      system would empty in just over a second.


6.1  What happens during a pit-stop?  [HG]

Cars must not exceed the pit lane speed limit, which is
different at each track. As driver comes in, one of the pit crew
indicates the location of the pit (it isn't easy to find in the
heat of the moment). The car stops on the marks and is lifted by
front and back jacks. Three mechanics are required for each
wheel; one to operate the tool to remove/replace the wheel, one
to take the old wheel off and one to put the new one on. In
addition, two are required to handle the fuel hose, and a couple
of spares wipe the drivers' visor etc.  The operation is
controlled by the chap at the front who holds the 'brakes on'
sign, and he looks out for all the mechanics to raise their
hands as a signal that they are finished and out of the way.
Then he signals for the car to be dropped off the jacks and the
driver can leave. Due to the restrictions on the equipment,
re-fueling actually takes longer than the tyre change.

Crews rehearse before every Grand Prix to keep in practice. As
there is now fuel being thrown around in the pitlane, all
mechanics wear fireproof overalls, and sometimes helmets too. A
few near-disasters have stressed that the pit lane is a
dangerous place, and personnel there should be kept to a
minimum.(i.e. groupies, relatives, under-age royals etc should
somewhere else!) The driver should keep his visor closed during
pit stop in case of fire. IMHO there WILL be a disastrous fire
unless refuelling is banned.  

6.2 Sponsorship [HG]

F1 teams could not continue to spend at current levels without
sponsors, among which the cigarette companies are major players.
Advertising regulations in Britain, France and Germany mean that
Williams appear there with 'Racing' rather than 'Rothmans'
written on them, and for McLaren it is 'McLaren' rather than
'Marlboro'. Sponsors can also rent out space on drivers as well
as cars, and all spaces are available right down to the back of
the mirrors. A six-inch wide patch on the front wing of a
Williams will cost you about 2 million dollars for the season.
Oh, and you won't be able to see it on the telly, but they'll do
you a nice package of sponsored events for the price. (!)

The best advert I saw was in 1993 when Sega sponsored Williams.
The Sega character, Sonic the Hedgehog, appeared at most of the
races, and the side of the car was painted so it appeared as a
cutout showing Sonic's legs doing the driving. McLaren responded
by sticking a squashed hedgehog logo to the side of their car
each time they won a race at the expense of a Williams. Senna's
incredible victory in the wet Donington GP of Europe was
headlined in Autosport as 'Senna's mega-drive'.

6.3 What's the difference between F1 and Indy?

Quite possibly THE most frequently asked question and the
subject of much debate in rasf1 which generally, after some
technical discussion, deteriorates into a slanging match between
European F1 fans and American Indy fans. Generally speaking,
Indy cars are bigger, faster and more durable whereas F1 cars
are more agile and accelerate faster. As to which is better and
which would win a head to head race? F1 cars are better under F1
regs at F1 circuits and Indy cars are better under Indy regs at
Indy circuits.

Tracks. Indy uses ovals as well as road and street courses - F1
does not. This, along with the use of the safety car, is the
most significant difference between the two series. Whilst
making for interesting discussion, the technical differences do
not have much of an impact from the spectators point of view.
However, Indy's detractors would say that the uniform ovals with
the resulting left turns only, produce a sterile racing
environment which allows no exciting passing. Furthermore, most
accidents will result in the safety car making an appearance
which will close up the field. Again, Indy's detractors would
argue that this produces an artificial racing environment
reducing the race to a series of short sprints which are merely
used to establish the grid order for the final sprint to the

On the other hand, F1 detractors would argue that because of the
wide difference in performance levels, and the fact that safety
cars are rarely used, there is very little close racing or
competitive passing in F1 and of course as a spectator you
cannot see the entire circuit at an F1 race. 

(I must apologize if my cultural bias has become apparent in
this section but as a Brit living in the U.S., I am living proof
that F1/Indy preference is determined by genes not environment).

Weight. F1 cars minimum weight is 585 kg (1,287 lbs). Indy car
minimum weight is 1,550 lbs (704.5 kg).

Brakes. F1 cars use carbon fibre brakes which are lighter and
more durable than the steel brakes used by Indy cars. (Indy cars
are allowed to use carbon brakes on the 2.5 mile superspeedways
at Indianapolis and Michigan. Steel brakes are mandatory at all
the other races). 

Ground effect. [AS] It is generally said that ground effect cars
are no longer allowed in F1 but this is not strictly true. All
cars generate ground effect, you cannot 'ban' it, only try to
design the rules to limit the downforce that can be obtained
from it. In F1 this is done by requiring flat bottoms between
the wheels (now with 50mm step). In Indycar they still allow
shaped ground effect tunnels, but with strictly controlled
dimensions and at a minimum height above the bottom of the

Turbo charging. Banned in F1 but still allowed in Indy -
although at a much lower boost pressure than was used by F1 cars
in the 80's.

Semi-automatic gearboxes. Allowed in F1 but not in Indy.

Nationality. Indy is basically a domestic U.S. series as far as
teams, venues and drivers are concerned. However, there are 3
venues outside of the U.S. (Surfer's Paradise, Brazil, Toronto
and Vancouver) and an increasing number of foreign drivers. F1
is truly international in teams, engines, venues and drivers
although there is a strong European influence, particularly
British and Italian.

And according to Jacques Villeneuve (Electronic Telegraph
3/4/96): "In the last few months I've done over 5,000 miles of
testing with Williams and I've learned a lot about the
differences between Formula One and Indycars. An F1 car is
slower on the straights but much quicker in the corners. The
engine has less horsepower but the power comes on quicker and
because a Formula One car is lighter and more responsive it
reacts faster to the driver's input and the braking is much
better. Because of its extra weight an IndyCar is a bit more
physical to drive, it slides more easily and it's harder
work to hold it. A Formula One car is more twitchy and when it
slides you have to react faster to catch it. It has higher
limits but I find this really enjoyable.

6.4  How many teams are there?

There are currently 11 teams, Simtek having filed bankruptcy in
1995 and Pacific pulling out at the end of the season, down from
an all time high of 20 in 1989.

6.5  What is the connection between Ford and Cosworth?

Ford and Cosworth first co-operated in 1959 when Cosworth
developed a lightweight iron crankcase engine for the new Ford
Anglia. Cosworth founders, Keith Duckworth and Mike Costin, then
tuned the new engine, code-named MAE (Modified Anglia Engine)
and it soon became the power unit of choice for drivers in
Formula Junior and later Formula 3.

Next came the Cosworth FVA racing engine and, impressed by the
potential of the new power unit, Ford commissioned the
Northamptonshire-based company to produce a roadgoing version to
suit its new high-performance Escort, the RS1600. The result was
the BDA (Belt-Driven A-series) which employed many of the
lessons learned in motor racing to achieve excellent levels of
performance and efficiency at relatively low cost.

The most successful Ford-Cosworth collaboration to date has been
the DFV (Double Four Valve) F1 engine.The 90 degree V8 stunned
the racing world when it appeared for the first time at the 1967
Dutch GP in the bank of Colin Chapman's highly effective Lotus
49 chassis and promptly powered Jim Clark to an historic win.

The Ford DFV went on to win 154 more GPs and 12 World
Championships in a career that spanned 15 years. During that
time, the DFV's power output climbed from 405 bhp to 520 bhp at
11,000 rpm.

The most recent development to issue from Cosworth is the Ford
Zetec-R F1 engine. Carrying the same "Zetec" name as the range
of double overhead camshaft, four-valve-per-cylinder engines
used in the current Fiesta, Escort and Mondeo model ranges, the
new 3.5 liter power unit was the highest-revving racing V8 ever
produced when it was unveiled prior to the start of the 1994
season at up to 14,500 rpm.

The new 3.0 liter Zetec-R is very similar to the larger 1994
engine with small differences to allow for the new stepped
floors and races at engine speeds up to 15,000 rpm. The Zetec-R
V10 is provided exclusively to Ford's chosen factory team -
Sauber - while customer teams will be supplied with last year's
V8 or the ED.

6.6 What frequencies do the teams use? [GD]

Contrary to popular belief, not all teams scramble their
transmissions. The following numbers are based on frequencies
actually monitored at the '96 Australian GP. Further comment,
either additions or confirmation that teams are/are not changing
frequencies at other races, is encouraged.

Schumacher - 450.6125 (also heard in Canada)
Alesi - 462.2500   (note, using Schu's old Benetton freq.)
Berger - 169.7600
Salo - 422.0125  (note, using Blundell's old Tyrrell freq.) 
Katayama - 416.5000

6.7 How can you tell team-mates apart? [RM]

Note: in Australia, Frentzen made the re-start in a car with
Herbert's markings.   Also, the orange nose on Barichello's
Jordan seems to have vanished between Brazil & Argentina.

    Schumacher:  None
    Irvine:     Yellow stripes on front & rear wings       
    Alesi:       Orange nose tip
    Berger:      None
    Hill:        Orange front wing hangers
    Villeneuve:  None
    Hakkinen:    None
    Coulthard:   Marlboro emblem on 1 front wing (switches      
    Panis:       Blue cockpit padding
    Diniz:       Yellow cockpit padding
    Barrichello: Orange nose tip  (First 2 races, but I don't 
                 think it was there in Argentina)
    Brundle:     None
    Herbert:     Yellow mirrors
    Frentzen:    Red mirrors
    Rosset:      Light (Green?) stripes on front wings
    Verstappen: None    
    Katayama:    Orange stripes on rear wings
    Salo:        None
    Lamy:        Green mirrors and rear winglets
    Marques:     Red mirrors and rear winglets
    Montermini:  ??     
    Badoer:      ??

6.8 Why is Frank Williams in a wheelchair? [HG]

Frank Williams broke his neck in a car crash in France in 1986.
He was driving home from the Paul Ricard circuit, lost control
and turned the car over. The injury was so severe that he was
not expected to live, and only survived due to his excellent
fitness; he used to run half-marathons regularly. For a while it
was thought that he would be unable to swallow or breathe
unaided, but he regained more movement than expected. He is 
paralysed from the chest down, with some limited movement in his
arms. Among all the other obvious limitations, this means that
he needs 24 hour care, cannot travel on commercial aircraft and
even finds speaking an effort. Consider this when you wonder why
he is rarely seen to smile.

Virginia Williams, Frank's wife, has written a book called 'A
Different Kind of Life' which describes their lives before and
after the accident, up to about 1990.

Drive carefully.

6.9 What is happening to UK TV coverage in 1997? [HG]

The BBC have lost the rights to Formula One. The exact details
depend on your sources, but it is believed that ITV made Bernie
Ecclestone an offer he couldn't refuse, and the deal was done
before the BBC knew of it.  Hence UK viewers will now have to
tolerate a Grand Prix interrupted by commercials. Eurosport have
also lost the rights, so there is not even the possibility of
switching between the two to get uninterrupted coverage. It is
to be hoped that ITV will schedule the advert breaks
intelligently, and provide rapid editing to replay any action
during the break. However, dreams of ads scrolling along the
bottom of the screen, or ads in one big chunk before and 
after the race, remain just that - dreams. Advertisers know that
no-one will watch them, although this format does seem
acceptable for football.

However, the story does not end there. ITV are contractually
bound to show all the races live. The South American races are
in the early evening, UK time, which is one of ITV's best slots.
As ITV do not have a second channel they will be forced to
devote their programming to what is still a minority sport.

It is not yet known whether Murray Walker MBE  will follow the
sport to ITV, but on the strength of current reports it seems


7.1 Read 'welcome to hierarchy', posted monthly
or so. This covers most of the points made below, which are
standard netiquette. Please read it.

7.2 Don't post jpegs,gifs or any other big files. Many people
download all messages in the newsgroup to be read off-line. If
you pay for connect time it is very annoying to find that you
have spent 10 minutes downloading a 7000 line binary. Post
pictures to and then you can just
post a short message on r.a.s.f1 telling people what you posted
and where you posted it.

7.3 Please don't get offensive - a driver can't help his
appearance or that of his wife, but their behaviour on or off
track is fair game. Also; ANYONE CAN MAKE A MISTAKE!!! Posts on
the lines of 'xxx is a complete yyyy' just get tedious.
Reasonable analysis please, we can buy junk newspapers if we
want rantings. Remember also that F1 is really easy from your
armchair, rather less so from the driving seat.

7.4 Great drivers and world champions come from all countries,
please keep down the nationalistic bias.

7.5 Not everyone on this group is male; chauvinist pig behaviour
will be spotted and rebuked! (By me and others!) Drivers are
good or bad on their own merits, not those of their chromosomes.
I'll let you get away with sexism, so long as it is in a
humorous vein; I too think that the swimsuit clad girlies on the
grid are unlikely to be filling in time between rocket-science

7.6 Not everyone on this group has English as a first language -
don't slag off someone for poor grammar or spelling. However
English is the language of the group, please try to post in it.

7.7 Spoilers; if you are posting within two days of a Grand
Prix, don't put the result in the header, just something like
'Hungarian GP - SPOILERS'; not 'Schumacher wins in Germany' as
this upsets people. On the other hand, it is almost certain that
somebody will violate the spoiler rule so read the group at your
peril - I have never seen the result of a race NOT given away in
at least one subject line!! 

7.8 Don't ask people to post results, practice times, starting
grids etc. All of these will be posted at least half a dozen
times so it is not necessary to ask - you will even see Friday's
practice times still being posted on Tuesday afternoon. If you
haven't seen the results within a few hours, then you have a
slow newsfeed and we can't help you with that.

7.9 Don't post test messages. There are many news groups set up
specifically for test messages - use them. (If you post to
alt.test you will even get automatic responses from a couple of
sites around the world telling you how long it took your post to
get to their site).

7.10 If you're responding to a long post, please use the delete
key liberally to edit the original message. People don't want to
page through a three page message to see your "I agree" reply.

7.11 Please ensure that your software restricts your post to 72
character per line. Most people will not read messages which
spill off the edge of their screen.

7.12 If you decide to quote Joe Bloggs or say that Joe Bloggs
posts complete rubbish then please make sure you distinguish
between, for example, and . It
does happen that two people on r.a.s.F1 can have the same name
with different email addresses. 


Jordan Home Page

The Racing Line: auto racing news, commentary and web links

The Anastasia Utendorf F1 Page - multi-media F1 program.

McLaren Home Page

News,Reviews,Results,Drivers,Teams,History.If its F1,its

Comprehensive coverage of F1 and other motorsports worldwide

The Formula One Links Page

Official Ferrari Home Page (Italian)

Official Ferrari Home Page (English)


The contribution of the following individuals is very gratefully
acknowledged. This FAQ would not have been possible without

Harald Bloche      [HB]
David Byrne        [DB]
Josje Cobben       [JC]
Glenn Durden       [GD]
Tim Downie         [TD]
Darryl Ellson      [DE]
Pete Fenelon       [PF]
Helen Gerald       [HG]
Andrew Henry       [AH]
Vincent Ho         [VH]
Chuck Ingene       [CI]
Mark Jackson       [MJ]
Randy Malbone      [RM]  
Kim Meijs          [KM]
Hans Molenaar      [HM]
Wyman Pattee       [WP]
Hugh Rankin        [HR]
AJ Samuels         [AS] 
Chris 'Bart'Simpson[CS]
Ulrich Teichert    [UT]

A big thank you also to McLaren, Jordan, Tyrrell, Sauber,
Benetton, Ferrari and Minardi for their assistance.

Copyright (c) 1996 by Mitchell McCann

Last revised on August 15, 1996 at 07:53 by Mitchell McCann